Caratteristiche Materiali

Material Properties

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The properties and performance characteristics of any rope are reliant on the materials from which they are made.  The following series of tables sets out to compare the key physical properties of the most frequently used materials. 
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MODULUS, STRENGTH AND ELONGATION

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Modulus, strength and elongation are all interconnected 
MATERIALEMODULUS
Tenacity (g/Denier)
STRENGTH
Tenacity (g/Denier)
ALLUNGAMENTO
(% in pausa)
Dyneema SK99 (HMPE)1800483.6
Dyneema SK78 (HMPE)1267403.5
Dyneema DM20 (HMPE)1042353.6
Zylon Type HM (PBO)1948422.5
Zylon Type AS (PBO)1302423.5
Zyex (PEEK)-6.530
Teflon (PTFE)1328.5
Technora (Para-Aramid)590274.5
Twaron (Para-Aramid)600233.6
Vectran (LCP)60025.93.8
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SPECIFIC GRAVITY

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Specific gravity (buoyancy of a rope / material) Specific gravity is a measure of the density of a material; a Specific Gravity of 1.0 is equivalent to a density of 1g per cm3 (i.e. a Specific Gravity <1 means the material floats). The following table shows the specific gravity of some of the materials commonly used in fibre ropes.
MATERIALESPECIFIC GRAVITY
Polypropylene 0.91
HMPE (Dyneema)0.98
Acqua dolce1
Salt Water1.03
Nylon1.14
Polyester1.38
Vectran1.41
Aramidi (Technora, Twaron, Kevlar, Nomex)1.44
Zylon1.54
Acciaio7.85
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ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION RESISTANCE

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Tutti i materiali sono influenzati da radiazioni UV in una certa misura. L'effetto effettivo su una corda da UV è molto difficile da prevedere poiché è affidabile su un certo numero di fattori casuali come l'intensità UV e la durata dell'esposizione. 

The table on the right attempts simply to rank different materials in line with their resistance to UV radiation on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being most resistant to UV and 1 being least resistant.

MATERIALEUV RANKING
Polyester5
HMPE (Dyneema)5
Nylon (UV treated)4
Aramidi (Technora, Twaron, Kevlar, Nomex)3
Vectran3
Polypropylene2
Zylon1
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PUNTO DI FUSIONE

The table on the left shows the typical melting or decomposition temperature of some common rope making materials. 

MATERIALEPUNTO DI MELTING (grado C)
Zylon650 (Decomposition)
Aramidi (Technora, Twaron, Kevlar, Nomex)500 (Decomposition)
Vectrancell
Polyestercell
Nylon (6.6 / 6)250 / 220
Polypropylene170
HMPE (Dyneema)150
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RESISTENZA CHIMICA

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Exposure to chemicals can have a significant affect on the strength and performance of ropes, depending on the material used in construction.  This table details the residual strength of synthetic fibres after chemical exposure under specific conditions.

Nylon ropes are particularly badly affected by exposure to most acids.  For this reason, Marlow developed a special Halochromic indicating (acid indicating) marker incorporated into to some of our nylon PPE Static Ropes.


TEST CONDITIONS


RESIDUAL STRENGTH

chimicoConcentrazione
Chimico / acqua%
Temperature
Deg. Centigrado
Esposizione
Ore
NylonPolyesterPolypropylenearamideHMPE
acidi







Cloridrico34%201000%90%100%95%100%
Nitric66%201000%70%100%95%95%
Sulphuric96%201000%100%100%40%90%
Formico90%201000%95%100%90%100%
Acetico100%2010085%95%100%100%100%
alcali







Soda caustica40%2010050%0%90%90%100%
Soda caustica20%70150100%0%100%85%90%
Potassio caustico20%2010090%0%90%90%100%
Solvents







tricloroetilene100%30150100%95%80%100%1005
Tetracloruro di carbonio100%20150100%100%100%98%100%
Benzene100%70150100%100%100%98%95%
Metacresol100%10040%0%100%80%100%
Oxidising agents







Perossido di idrogeno10%201000%100%90%95%100%
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